The territory of Turkey is larger than that of all its neighbors except Iran and all European countries except the Russian Federation. In terms of population, Turkey (about 85 million people) is the second largest country in Europe after Germany.
Turkey, one of the most strategically important countries in the world, in terms of its geopolitical position is located at the crossroads of the Asian, European and African continents, called the "Lands of the Old World". It is the only bridge between all religions and also between eastern and western civilizations.
Turkey is connected to the Black, Mediterranean and Aegean Seas, which surround it on three sides. It neighbors many countries of the world and has been the center of great migrations and trade routes throughout history. The Black Sea opens up to the world through the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, and very important waterways pass through the inland Sea of Marmara. Georgia, Armenia, Nakhichevan and Iran in the east; Bulgaria and Greece in the west; It borders with Syria and Iraq in the south.
Language in Turkey
The official language of Turkey is Turkish. Today in Turkey, most of population speak Turkish . Many different dialects are used depending on the region. The Istanbul dialect is preferred by educational and press organizations. The number of people who speak foreign languages, especially English and Russian.
At the First Turkish Geographical Congress held 6-21 June 1941, Turkey was divided into 7 major geographic regions and 21 geographic divisions, four of Turkey's seven geographic regions were named after the sea it borders, and the remaining three regions were named in accordance with their position throughout Anatolia.
Climate of Turkey
The fact that Turkey is surrounded by seas on three sides, the location of the mountains and the variety of landforms have led to the emergence of different types of climate. Coastal areas exhibit temperate climate characteristics due to the influence of the seas. The mountains of Northern Anatolia and the Taurus mountains prevent the penetration of the influence of the sea into the interior of the country. Because of this, the continental climate is visible inland.
Mediterranean climate: This type of climate, which is effective on the shores of the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas, reaches the southern coast of the Sea of Marmara. The characteristics of this climate are visible from the coast to an altitude of about 800 meters. In this type of climate, summers are hot and dry, while winters are warm and rainy. Antalya has such a climate.
Black Sea climate: This is the type of climate of the northern coast of Turkey, on the slopes of the mountains facing the sea. The summer temperature in this climate is not as effective as in the Mediterranean climate. The winter season is cold compared to the south coast. Rainfall is high.
Continental climate: Continental climate is observed in those parts of Turkey that are far from the sea and cannot sufficiently benefit from the influence of the sea due to the obstacles created by the landforms. The regions of Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and South-Eastern Anatolia, as well as the hinterland of Thrace, are influenced by the continental climate. Seasonal and daily temperature fluctuations are large here, precipitation is generally less. Winters are long, cold and snowy, while summers are short but hot.
Education in Turkey
During the Creation years, most of the total population of 12 million people were illiterate. Today this figure is 90%. Turkish education system; Based on 8 years of basic education. Then comes the 4-year period of secondary education. The transition to the university is carried out through an examination for the selection of students. Public trainings are held on the basis of non-formal education institutions.
Turkey also has foreign schools. There are schools where they speak one language, as well as multilingual schools. This situation, which is often observed, especially in tourist regions, is a positive situation for foreign visitors.
Until the 1930s, Istanbul Technical University and Istanbul University were the only two universities in the country, and today the number of universities is 125. There is no province without a university. As a result of extensive research conducted by Shanghai Jiao Tong University since 2003, Istanbul University is ranked among the top 500 universities in the world.
The founding date of Istanbul University, the oldest university in Turkey, dates back to 1453, and the founding date of Istanbul Technical University, the oldest technical university, dates back to 1773.
Turkish cuisine is one of the richest cuisines in the world, along with Chinese and French cuisines. Due to its geographical location and history, Turkish cuisine is very diverse. Turkish cuisine interacted with Mesopotamian and Balkan cuisines, and the cuisine of the Istanbul Ottoman Palace is also an important part of Turkish cuisine.
The palace's Ottoman cuisine offers a wide variety of soups, vegetables with olive oil, meat dishes, fish, pies and desserts. Palace cuisine is an elite cuisine shaped by centuries of palace taste and experience from the Byzantine Empire to the Ottoman Empire. At that time, folk and rural cuisine was simple and unpretentious.
Each region and village has its own unique dishes.
Today, "Turkish cuisine" has emerged, which is a mixture of palace culture and folk culture. Many palace dishes were adopted by the people.
Important Days and Holidays in Turkey
January 1 - New Year
April 23 - Day of National Sovereignty and Protection of Children
May 19 - Commemoration of Ataturk, Youth and Sports Day
August 30 - Victory Day
October 29 - Republic Day